Full-thickness Macular Hole Closure with Topical Medical Therapy

Purpose: To examine the efficacy and clinical characteristics of successful full-thickness macular hole closure with topical therapy.

Methods: Retrospective case series of full-thickness macular holes managed by a single retinal physician (DS) diagnosed and treated from 2017 to 22.

Results: Of 168 patients with full-thickness macular holes, 71 patients were started on steroid, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory (NSAID) drops. 49 patients (mean 67 years, 59% women) were included in the analysis, and 22 patients were excluded for poor follow-up. In total, 7/49 were secondary post-PPV holes and 42/49 were idiopathic. In addition, 18/49 eyes (36.7%) achieved closure on topical therapy, of which 13 were idiopathic. Hole size was directly correlated with odds of closure: for every 10 μm decrease in size and odds of closure increased by 1.2× ( P = 0.001, CI 1.1-1.4). Average time to closure was 107.2 days (range 20-512 days) and was not correlated with hole size ( P = 0.217, CI -0.478 to +1.938). The presence of VMT was found to be inversely related to successful closure (OR 6.1, P = 0.029, CI 1.2-31.3). There was no significant difference in final best-corrected visual acuity for eyes undergoing primary pars plana vitrectomy versus those trialing drops before undergoing pars plana vitrectomy ( P = 0.318, CI -0.094 to +0.112).

Conclusion: In the first study to date to report the overall efficacy and clinical characteristics of successful macular hole closure with topical therapy, drops achieved an overall closure rate of 36.7%, with higher efficacy in smaller holes and those without VMT. Rates of MH narrowing and reduction in central foveal thickness acted as predictors of effectiveness of drop therapy.

Wang J, Rodriguez SH, Xiao J, et al. Full-thıckness macular hole closure wıth topical medical therapy. Retina. 2024;44:392-399. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37948745/



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