Purpose: To investigate the presence and clinical relevance of hyperreflective foci (HRFs) in retinitis pigmentosa.
Methods: Seventy seven retinitis pigmentosa cases were retrospectively reviewed. The 10-mm wide cross-line macular scans in optical coherence tomography were acquired. Hyperreflective foci were classified according to the location in optical coherence tomography: outer layers within the macula (HRF-outer-central), macular border beyond the central 3 mm (HRF-outer-perifoveal), and choroid (HRF-choroidal). The visual acuity at baseline, at 12 months, and other fundus characteristics were collected.
Results: The mean logMAR best-corrected visual acuity decreased from 0.59 ± 0.66 (20/78 in Snellen) to 0.74 ± 0.81 (20/106 in Snellen) in 1 year. Sixty-six (42.9%), 105 (68.2%), and 98 (63.6%) eyes were classified to HRF-outer-central, HRF-outer-perifoveal, and HRF-choroidal group, respectively. Hyperreflective foci were positively correlated with poorer vision, central macular thinning, and ellipsoid zone disruption (all P < 0.001). Worse vision was associated with older age, macular involvement, and the coexistence of two or three HRF groups (P = 0.014, 0.047, 0.019, <0.001, respectively). Hyperreflective foci developed more frequently in patients with thick choroid than in those with thin choroid. The coexistence of three HRF groups was correlated with quicker visual deterioration (P = 0.034).
Conclusion: Hyperreflective foci are common in retinitis pigmentosa and can be a negative prognostic indicator of macular thickness and visual preservation. Thick choroid was associated with all groups of HRFs, especially HRF-choroidal.
Huang CH, Yang CH, Lai YJ, et al. Hyperreflective foci as important prognostic indicators of progression of retinıtis pigmentosa. Retina. 2022;42(2):388-395. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34510128/